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April 28, 2018 / C H Thompson

Sub-cultural factors in relation to achievement-revision notes

What Douglas and others have identified is different social-class have different values, expectations, and lifestyles which can affect a child’s attainment at school.

Sugerman (1970) and Hyman (1967) identified how working-class children are seen to be culturally deprived (compared to the middle-classes) when preparing their children for school.

Subcultural differences between the social-classes:

  • Sugarman (1970) and Hyman (1967) highlighted the effects of socialization in creating two distinct, values based, subcultures
  • Middle-class children are socialised into the shared values of
  • future time orientation and
  • deferred gratification facilitated by individual effort
  • In contrast the working-classes socialise their children to focus on
  • present-time orientation and
  • immediate gratification due to a sense of fatalism

It’s worth point-out that many government policies are created to try and overcome this material deprivation in one form or another through cello-boyzcompensatory education schemes.

For example SureStart programme, one example of compensatory education, is a mechanism for getting working-class toddlers ready for school and so are parenting-classes which seek to improve the parenting skills of parents.


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