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September 10, 2008 / C H Thompson

From classical to elite pluralism

classical pluralism by Sam Cook a former student

Weber’s theories about power were further developed by Robert Dahl in the 1960s in his book ‘Who Governs?’. His theory is known as ‘classical pluralism’ for more details follow this link classical-pluralism.dahl1

The best way of understanding and seeing classical pluralism is through pressure groups. Follow this link to get a better understanding of pressure groups. The BBC has produced an even more detailed look at pressure groups here. Alternatively here are some of my detailed notes on pressure groups which you need to know. pressure-groups.

However there are criticisms of Dahl’s analysis of power which are available a-critique-of-classical-pluralism. This prompted David Marsh to develop his ideas which are known as elite pluralism (elite pluralism must not be confused with Elite Theory which is discussed later). Here are some notes on elite pluralism elite-pluralism.

The key aspects of elite pluralism are:                                                

  1. Elite pluralists such as Marsh say that classical pluralists are far too optimistic  
  2. Elite pluralists recognise that all competing groups are not equal like classical pluralists suggest. For example the CBI – insider pressure group (Confederation of British Industry) has more power than the Fathers for Justice – outsider pressure group 

elite pluralism by Sam Cook a former student

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26 Comments

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  1. Rudi Barwis / Sep 15 2008 2:19 pm

    A pressure group is a group of people who try to influence legislation. Outsider pressure groups tend to get their points across by campaigning, protesting and performing demonstrations. A good example of and outsider pressure group protesting would be Fathers 4 Justice, a group of men campaigning for equal rights when it comes to family law and gaining custody of their children. Outside pressure groups do not have the support of an MP to get their points across to the government so they have to campaign by others means. An example of a protest performed by Fathers 4 Justice was when a group of fathers stood on top of Buckingham Palace dressed as super heroes, fighting for the right to see their children. Outsider pressure groups can try to lobby MPs in order to get their opinions across and put pressure on the government but it can be unsuccessful.

    Insider pressure groups are groups of people trying to influence legislation by using the support of a member of parliament. MPs can use their power to bring up the issues raised by the pressure group during a party conference. Insider pressure groups tend to have more success when it comes to changing laws as they put a more direct pressure on the government. They educate their MP with the issues and views that they want to rise and that MP will raise the issues at his local council meeting, who will raise those issues and the county council meeting, who will in turn raise it at his party conference. Insider pressure groups have formal and privileged access to the government.

  2. Pippa Donnelly / Sep 16 2008 9:41 am

    What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups?
     Protective pressure groups main aim is to protect their own interests. Promotional pressure groups, main aim is to promote a cause which they believe is being neglected by government.

     The CBI and the TUC are two examples of protective pressure groups

     Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth are two examples of promotional pressure groups.

    Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across
    o Gaining public support – using mass media, advertising and fundraising events.
    o Demonstrations – public demonstrations, lobbying parliament and petitions are used to illustrate public opinion. Think of the Anti-War demonstration this illustrates the collaboration between inside and outside groups that failed to change government policy.
    o Non-violent direct action – such as disrupting fox hunting, or blockading roads in 2001 petrol strike.
    Identify the many ways insider pressure groups exert their power
    o Insider pressure groups have direct access to the corridors of power and have direct Contact with MPs and political parties.
    o Insider groups also gain public support – using mass media, advertising and fundraising events – this is often easier for insider groups, as ideologically they might attract more support.

  3. meghan francis / Sep 16 2008 9:42 am

    1. What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups?

    • The main aim of the protective pressure groups is to protect their own interests. Examples are CBI and TUC. CBI protects the interests of business and TUC protects the interests of trade unionists.
    • Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth are two examples of promotional pressure groups, because their main aim is to promote a cause which they believe is being neglected by government.

    2. Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across.

    • Gaining public support – using mass media, advertising and fundraising events.
    • Demonstrations – public demonstrations, lobbying parliament and petitions are used to illustrate public opinion. Think of the Anti-War demonstration this illustrates the collaboration between inside and outside groups that failed to change government policy.
    • Non-violent direct action – such as disrupting fox hunting, or blockading roads in 2001 petrol strike.

    3. Identify the many ways which insider pressure groups exert their power.

    • Insider pressure groups have access to the corridors of power and can contact MPs and political parties.
    • They can also gain public support by using mass media, advertising and fundraising events. This is easier for insider pressure groups and they can attract more support.

  4. Emma Martin / Sep 16 2008 9:43 am

    What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups?

    • Protective pressure groups main aim is to protect their own interests.
    • Promotional pressure groups main aim is to promote a cause which they believe is being neglected by government.
    Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across
    • Outsider groups (those without any direct access to the corridors of power) eg JABS, Pensioners Against Council Tax
    • Gaining public support – using mass media, advertising and fundraising events – this is often easier for insider groups, as ideologically they might attract more support.
    • Demonstrations – public demonstrations, lobbying parliament and petitions are used to illustrate public opinion. Think of the Anti-War demonstration this illustrates the collaboration between inside and outside groups that failed to change government policy.
    • Non-violent direct action – such as disrupting fox hunting, or blockading roads in 2001 petrol strike.
    Identify the many ways insider pressure groups exert their power
    • Insider groups (those with direct access to the corridors of power) eg CBI, TUC, Prison Reform Trust.
    • Contact with MPs and political parties – this is easier for insider than outsider groups
    • Insider groups are those which develop close relationships with government departments or other official bodies.
    • They are trusted by the departments and negotiate quietly, unobtrusively for their members – often on issues which most citizens would not recognise or understand.

  5. Joshua Billinge / Sep 16 2008 9:43 am

    1.
    * Protective pressure groups main concerns are to protect their own interests
    * However promotional pressure groups – such as Green Peace and Friends of the Earth focus more on promoting there cause to people so they get more support.

    2.
    * Outsider groups are those without any direct access to the corridors of power eg JABS, Pensioners Against Council Tax they use demonstrations
    * Public demonstrations, lobbying parliament and petitions are also used to illustrate public opinion.
    *An example of this is the Anti-War demonstrations

    3.
    * Insider groups are those with direct access to the corridors of power
    * Eg CBI, TUC, Prison Reform Trust use their power in ways such as contacting MPs and political parties also by gaining public support.
    * Using mass media, advertising and fundraising events.

  6. Emily Easthope / Sep 16 2008 9:44 am

    What is the difference between promotional and protective groups?

    Protective pressure groups’ main aim is to protect their own aim, for example CBI, protects the interest of businesses.
    Promotional pressure groups instead have the main aim of promoting a cause which they feel is being neglected by the government, for example Greenpeace.

    Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across
    Pressure Group Methods
    Pressure groups employ a wide variety of methods:

    1/ Demonstrations – public demonstrations, lobbying parliament and petitions are used to illustrate public opinion. Think of the Anti-War demonstration this illustrates the collaboration between inside and outside groups that failed to change government policy.

    2/ Non-violent direct action – such as disrupting fox hunting, or blockading roads in 2001 petrol strike.

    Identify the many ways insider pressure groups exert their power
    1/ Contact with MPs and political parties – this is easier for insider than outsider groups

    2/ Gaining public support – using mass media, advertising and fundraising events – this is often easier for insider groups, as ideologically they might attract more support.

  7. Pete Warner / Sep 16 2008 9:45 am

    Protective pressure groups:

    • These are groups that are protective of their own interests. CBI protect the interests of business and the TUC protects the interests of trade unionists

    Promotional groups:

    • These are groups that promote their beliefs that they believe the government are neglecting. Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth are examples.

    Several ways pressure groups can get their points across are:

    • Non-violent direct action, Strikes, blockading roads on the petrol strike.

    • Public demonstrations, lobbying parliament and petitions are used to illustrate public opinion.

    Several ways insider pressure groups exert their power:

    • Contact with MPs and political parties

    • Gaining public support, mass media, advertising and fundraising events

    • Demonstrations – public demonstrations, lobbying parliament and petitions

  8. Jessica cooper / Sep 16 2008 9:46 am

    What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups?

    Protective pressure groups have the main aim of protecting their own interests, for example the CBI protects business interest and TUC protect trade union interests. Whereas promotional pressure groups are different, their aim is to promote a cause which they believe is being neglected by the government. For example, Green peace and friends of the earth.

    Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across?

    Outsider groups are at a disadvantage when try to get their point across, and couple of strategies they use are public demonstrations, lobbying parliament and petitions are used to illustrate public opinion.
    Non-violent direct action, such as disrupting fox hunting, or blockading roads in 2001 petrol strike. The most obvious way for an outsider to get their point across is to protest, which might gain media attention, and therefore may force the outsider group into the insider, and example, of an organisation like this are greenpeace.

    Identify the many ways insider pressure groups exert their power?

    Insiders have better access to political parties, and therefore can have more of an influence, for example insider groups can have contact with MP’s and political parties, this is easier for an insider group, and they have access to the corridors of power, whereas outsider groups do not. Insiders also may fair better in gaining public support, they can use mass media, advertising and fundraising events, this is easier for insider groups as ideologically they will attract more support, this could be down to their power in society compared to outsiders who don’t have much.

  9. Laura Smith / Sep 16 2008 9:47 am

    What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups?

    Protective pressure groups main aim is to protect their interests, for example CBI protects the interests of business and TUC protects the interests of Trade Unionists.
    Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth are two examples of promotional pressure groups, because their main aim is to promote a cause which they believe is being neglected by government.

    Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across

    – Demonstrations – public demonstrations, lobbying parliament and petitions are used to illustrate public opinion. Think of the Anti-War demonstration this illustrates the collaboration between inside and outside groups that failed to change government policy.

    – Non-violent direct action – such as disrupting fox hunting, or blockading roads in 2001 petrol strike.

    Identify the many ways insider pressure groups exert their power

    – Contact with MPs and political parties – this is easier for insider than outsider groups

    – Gaining public support – using mass media, advertising and fundraising events – this is often easier for insider groups, as ideologically they might attract more support.

  10. Emma Whitford / Sep 16 2008 9:48 am

    What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups?

    There is a difference between promotional and protective pressure groups. Groups such as CBI and the TUC are examples of protective pressure groups, this is because there main aim is to protect their own interests. For example the CBI protects interests of business and the TUC protects interests of Trade Unionists.
    Friends of the Earth and Green peace are two examples of promotional pressure groups, this is because their main aim is to promote areas which they believe is being neglected by government. However, the distinctions between promotional and protective pressure groups are not always helpful as many of the groups share the same or similar characteristics.

    Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across

    Outsider pressure groups use different methods in order to get their point across to the public and government. For example they may carry out public demonstrations, petitions, lobbying parliament are used to illustrate public opinion theses are known as demonstrations. They can also carry out Non-violent direct action, which can be disrupting foxhunting or blockading roads in the 2001 petrol strike.

    Identify the many ways insider pressure groups exert their power.

    Insider pressure groups are groups which develop relationships with government departments and other official bodies. They can exert their power by contacting MPs and political parties. Insider pressure groups can also gain public support from using public mass media, advertising and fundraising events.

  11. Sarah Butcher / Sep 16 2008 9:49 am

    1) What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups?
    Protective pressure groups such as CBI and TUC have the aim to protect their own interests whereas promotional pressure groups such as Greenpeace have the aim to promote a cause they believe is being neglected by the government.

    2) Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across
    Outsider pressure groups use several ways of getting their point across, some of these include: Gaining public support by using mass media, advertising and fundraising events. Demonstrations, petitions are used to illustrate public opinions. They also protest by using non-violent direct action such as blockading roads.

    3) Identify the many ways insider pressure groups exert their power
    Insider pressure groups exert their power by have direct contact with MPs and political parties, they also find it easier to gain public support than outsider pressure groups.

  12. Becky Cooke / Sep 19 2008 8:27 am

    1. In order for outsider pressure groups to get their point across they:
    – try to use the media to get attention in order to get heard.
    – use demonstrations or protests to voice their opinion.
    – disrupt public events in order to make a statement.

    2. Insider pressure groups have direct access to those in the houses of parliament, so can use their power through contacting the politicians.
    Also, they have the power to get on the right side of the media and so can be publicised positively.

    3. Protective pressure groups main aim is to protect their own interests, e.g. CBI and TUC.
    Promotional pressure groups main aim is to promote a cause which they believe is being neglected by the government, e.g. Greenpeace and Fathers for Justice.

  13. Rudi Barwis / Sep 19 2008 8:30 am

    Protective pressure groups usually represent a certain group of professional people in society e.g. teachers or firemen etc. To represent these groups you must be in this certain body of professionals. Protective pressure groups such as veterans’ organizations or trade unions are usually “insiders”.

    Promotional pressure groups usually promote causes far greater than the protection of a specific group of human beings. They claim to represent the common interests of all life on earth. Examples of promotional pressure groups include Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth and Worldwide Fund for Nature. There is usually no age limit or specific profession needed to represent these kinds of groups which is why they are usually much larger than protective pressure groups. The largest promotional pressure group in Europe is The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds with almost one million members. This is larger than all three UK national political parties put together. These groups are usually “outsiders”.

  14. Laura Lewis / Sep 19 2008 8:32 am

    1. Pressure groups employ a wide variety of methods:

    • Contact with MPs and political parties – this is easier for insider than outsider groups

    • Gaining public support – using mass media, advertising and fundraising events – this is often easier for insider groups, as ideologically they might attract more support.

    • Demonstrations – public demonstrations, lobbying parliament and petitions are used to illustrate public opinion. Think of the Anti-War demonstration this illustrates the collaboration between inside and outside groups that failed to change government policy.

    • Non-violent direct action – such as disrupting fox hunting, or blockading roads in 2001 petrol strike.

    2. Insider pressure groups exert their power through having strong connections with influential political figures that support them.

    3. The CBI and the TUC are two examples of protective pressure groups, because their main aim is to protect their own interests.

    CBI protect the interests of business

    TUC protects the interests of trade unionists

    Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth are two examples of promotional pressure groups, because their main aim is to promote a cause which they believe is being neglected by government.

    The distinction between promotional and protective pressure groups

  15. Ricci Symons / Sep 19 2008 8:39 am

    Outside pressure groups can try and get their point across through several means. The most popular one is by organised protests or strikes. They can also organise campaigns and petitions. Fathers for justice even threw purple flour bombs and the prime minister of England on 19th May 2004.

    Insider pressure groups exert their power within the houses or parliament by directly contacting the prime minister and members of the cabinet and persuading them to listen to their points. They also contact MP’s within the houses of parliament and try to get them on board with their ideals.

    Promotional pressure groups seek to change policy in one particular area. They want to change policy such as gun laws or protect the environment (like Greenpeace). Protective pressure groups look out for one particular group of people, such as NUT which protects teachers or the CBI which protects British industry.

  16. DANIELLE DENISON / Sep 19 2008 8:45 am

    An outsider group does not have this access to government and has to operate by trying to gain public
    support which will then influence those with power. They use methods such as, public demonstrations,
    petitions. You should be aware that whether a group is insider or outsider can change depending upon the
    government in power.
    Eg.
    You can then divide them between those who desperately want to become insider whilst others want to
    remain outsider.

    groups may organise meetings, demonstrations, protests.
    Eg’s
    Some may use illegal methods in order to demonstrate the strength of their opposition. They will be
    prepared to go to court in order to gain publicity or to demonstrate the elements of a law that they do
    not like.
    Eg.’s
    Some groups may commission reports by experts to give weight to their point of view and to get
    media exposure.
    Eg.
    Advertising and poster campaigns may also be used to attract media attention
    Eg
    Fighting elections. First came to prominence during the 1997 general election.
    Eg
    Some insider groups may also try to get public opinion on their side in order to make their discussions
    with government more successful.
    Eg The national farmers union and foot and mouth

    A sectional group promotes or protects the interests of it’s members usually economic or material.
    Eg.
    A promotional group represents the interests of others or campaigns on specific issues such as the
    environment
    This can now be subdivided into three sub groups:
    Sectional Promotional: represent the interests of a particular section of society eg.
    Attitude Promotional: aim to inform, educate the public eg.
    Political Promotional: campaign for change to the political system eg.

  17. Grace / Sep 19 2008 8:56 am

    Task 1.
    By using direct actions of violence or riots to attract media attention.
    Using speakers who have strong charisma
    By creating protests

    Task 2.
    Insider groups might be included in regular meetings with ministers and they might be included on lists for circulation of new government proposals. They have easier access to MP’s and would know them better as outsider pressure groups can not easily speak to MP’s they must demonstrate to show that they mean what they say.

    Task 3.
    A Promonational Pressure group is group who promote a particular cause and are not self-interested in that the achievement of their objectives.Such as the RSPCA or Greenpeace.
    A Protective Pressure Group. Such as CBI or the RICS ( I couldnt find an explanation anywhere not lycos, not as, not google. Sorry apparently no such thing as protective pressure groups.

  18. Harriet Chappell / Sep 19 2008 9:08 am

    1) Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across.

    Outsider pressure groups such as Fathers for Justice demonstrate their views in several ways. Many of them form protests outside the Houses of Parliament in an attempt to get the attention of MP’s.
    Outside pressure group Greenpeace recently climbed to the top of a nuclear power plant to hang banners, showing that pressure groups often go to extreme and possibly illegal lengths to give their message.
    Outsider pressure groups often use the mass media to gain support too. By gaining more support from the public they gain a bigger following, therefore putting more pressure on the government to change.
    They may also use petitions and non-violent direct action, such as interrupting a fox hunt to stop something happening that they believe is unjust.

    2) Identify the many ways insider pressure groups exert their power.

    Insider pressure groups such as CBI have an advantage as they are in the ‘inner ‘elite’ circle’. Being a successful company, they have more money and therefore more power. This means that they are considered to have more status and so enter the ‘inner circle’, whereby they have access to MP’s and even the Prime minister if they so choose. Having access to all these important people means they can easily share their message without the hype of a protest. MP’s are more likely to listen to and respect the wishes of these insider pressure groups with power.

    3) What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups?

    A protective pressure group is one who aims to protect their own interests. For example, CBI aim to protect the interest of business, and TUC protects the interests of trade unionists.
    A promotional pressure group is one who aims to promote a cause which they believe is being neglected by the government. An example of this would be Greenpeace, who often protest on behalf of the environment, which they believe is not cared for enough by the government.

  19. Hannah Godwin / Sep 19 2008 9:09 am

    1. Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across.

    Protests, this makes their point known as it attracts media coverage. This can be in the form of actions, such as fathers for justice standing on roof tops, or strikes, such as the teachers strike for better pay, demonstrations and rallies, creating large groups of people to make their voices heard and petitions, collecting large amounts of silent support. This means that these outside pressure groups gain support from the general public so that the government will eventually have to give in as they have no political power like inside pressure groups do. This is known as classical pluralism.

    2. Identify the many ways insider pressure groups exert their power

    Inside pressure groups are groups that work from inside the government to protest the policies. They can do this because they are able to contact the MPs who have some political power to make their point known so that their cause is discussed in the House of Commons. An example of an inside pressure group is CBI. This can be seen as a much more effective form of protest than outside pressure groups because they have can get their points across much more quickly, however they are also battling against other pressure groups with in the House of Commons to make the MPs support their views, and they do not have media coverage to publicize their points. Inside pressure groups are an example of elite pluralism.

    3. What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups?

    Promotional pressure groups have the aim of promoting a cause which they feel is not covered enough by the government, examples being Fathers for Justice and Greenpeace, which makes media coverage vital to their cause. Whereas protective pressure groups aim to protect their own interests, such as the CBI and TUC so they can work as inside pressure groups as they have no need for media attention.

  20. Adam Turel / Sep 19 2008 9:09 am

    1. Outsider pressure groups are described as those that do not have direct access to the corridors of power within the government and need to get their message or point across using various methods. For particularly large issues, such as global warming, pressure groups such as Greenpeace etc use the media to get their point across and rally for public support putting forward petitions, and the media can always cause a stir, trying to put pressure on the people in power. Demonstrations, for example Fathers for Justice Supporters climbing Buckingham Palace to try and get governments attention as it is rather difficult to do so rationally. Also advertising in the media and locally will achieve more public awareness and fundraising events enable these organisations to obtain funds to try and attract more attention, with the aim of overturning or introducing government policy. Holding a more sensible demonstration, for example an anti-war protest would attract much more public support, as many British subjects are opposed to war and inside or elite pressure groups may also combine forces where they have failed to influence government. Contacting MPs is a difficult way of trying to reason with the people in power, as they have already ‘won’ the argument by having direct access to the corridors of power anyway.

    2. Insider pressure groups such as the Trade Union Congress and the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) are seen as ‘elite’ as they are already inside government and have more of an influence. For example there may be a protest to increase the minimum wage but in a capitalist society businesses want to make as much money as possible and would oppose such a move. Therefore, the CBI would be able to exert their power to the cabinet and Prime Minister by trying the persuade them to agree a deal and reach a compromise. Sociologist Lukes argued that they are the ones setting the agenda and have power over government. Insider pressure groups may also want to use the media to attract more support for example Energy companies i.e. E-on opposing Greenpeace’s philosophy on using wind turbines and render them useless to try and persuade the government to change their policies.

    3. Protective pressure groups are the ‘elite’ ones, as they have their own interests to protect before the media and the public trying to change government policy. For example, the CBI wants to protect the interest of businesses and the TUC wants what’s best for Trade Unionists so each group can utilise their power and get what they wish from the government as they are highly influential. Promotional pressure groups are ones who are on the outside the circle of power and need to use the media and public to support their principles to make the government listen. There is usually a clash between their beliefs and the governments, for example Greenpeace opposing to Nuclear energy, so their views are not considered as significant.

  21. sophie Lankester / Sep 19 2008 9:10 am

    1. Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their point across
    Protests, this grabs the media’s attention and then they get coverage and publicity from it. Groups such as Green peace have been successful getting media attention. This means the pressure groups gain publicity and become more populated to multiply their chances of being noticed, and winning the argument. Presentations are well known for being done to get more people to join their certain campaign groups and get them noticed on a broader scale creating a bigger pressure group for the government to deal with. Petitions are well known to be used to get the public siding with their campaign showing more people want to stand for what that group believes in, making a more powerful approach to getting their point across.
    2. Identify the many ways insider pressure groups exert their power?
    Inside pressure groups are already involved with the government and will be able to get in contact with the MP’s just by walking in the corridors. Inside pressure groups such as the CBI are able to put their point across to the higher MP’s without causing media attention. CBI are the perfect example of elite pluralism as they are on the “inside” and can make changes and choices within the government without being harassed by the media, where as outside pressure groups have to put their point across in a more obvious way as they are unable to contact the top without media coverage.
    3. What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups?
    CBI and TUC are examples of protective pressure groups as they want to protect and keep under cover the interest of their business, that is why you never see the inside pressure groups announced by the media. Green piece and Fathers of justice are two examples of promotional pressure groups as they want to freely promote their group to the media as they believe the government will then notice their views and opinions.

  22. Karen Thompson / Sep 19 2008 9:10 am

    1) The outside pressure groups protest to get attention off the media so that the media can portray their issue in a good light to try and get people on there side. They can also use the media to promote fundraising events for there issue. An example of an outside pressure group is Fathers for Justice. Outside pressure groups also use non-violent direct action such as blocking roads or disrupting fox hunts. Another way that outside pressure groups can try and get there point across is through demonstrations such as public demonstrations and petitions.

    2) Inside pressure groups exert their power by gaining public support by using media to get their point out to the public. As they would have a lot a links with the media it is a lot easier for inside pressure groups to get media support than outside pressure groups. As they have contact with MPs and political parties, if they don’t like a decision made by the government, for example raising the minimum wage, then they can get the government to rethink it through and put pressure on the government not to do what the outside pressure groups want. An example of this would be the government putting up minimum wage do to protest of workers then the CBI would argue against this and as they are on the inside then it is a lot easier for them to get their points across.

    3) The difference between promotional and protective pressure groups is that promotional pressure groups which tend to be outside pressure groups such as Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth try and promote issue with they believe are being neglected by government where as protective pressure groups which tend to be inside pressure groups such as CBI and TUC, only try and protect their own interests. CBI only interested in protecting businesses and TUC only protect the interest of trade unions. However some promotional and protective groups share the same characteristics.

  23. Hannah Easterbrook / Sep 19 2008 9:12 am

    1.) They may try to gain media attention and therefore, by advertising themselves, make public aware of them and gain their support. They may gain public attention by using mass media, for example, holding fund raising events or advertising. They may also perform demonstrations to not only get the public attention but that of the Government by holding petitions or protests that the Government can not ignore.
    2.) Insider groups are more at an advantage in regards to gaining the attention of the Government as they have more links to them. This means it is easier for insider groups to come into contact with members of parliament and political parties. Because of this, they do not need as much media attention to voice their opinion to the Government such as advertising themselves or holding any fund raising events as they can have direct contact with the members within the Government.
    3.) The distinct difference between protective and promotional pressure groups is that protective pressure groups base decisions and opinions around their own interest. These protective pressure groups tend to be insider pressure groups such as CBI and TUC. Promotional pressure group’s main aim is to promote issues that they believe the Government is ignoring. These pressure groups tend to be outsider groups such as Greenpeace and Fathers for Justice.

    It may be fair to say that perhaps these promotional pressure groups are outsider groups because the Government is ignoring issues for a reason, and therefore, because these promotional pressure groups are bringing these issues up, the Government is trying to also ignore these pressure groups thus making them outsider groups, where they will find it harder to gain Government attention.

  24. Charlotte Amor / Sep 19 2008 9:15 am

    1. Identify several ways outsider pressure groups try and get their points across –

    Outsider pressure groups try and get their points across by protesting, a pressure group is a group of people with a shared goal who put pressure on the public, governments and business with a view of achieving these goals. Outsider pressure groups are pressure groups which are outside of the houses of parliament, examples of these would be green peace and fathers for justice. Insider pressure groups are pressure groups which are inside of the houses of parliament, examples of these would be CBI, these have inside links and can therefore get their point across and have more power than outsider pressure groups. These are recognised by Elite Pluralists.
    An example of outsider pressure groups getting their point across would be a recent protest by Greenpeace against nuclear power, Greenpeace won the fight against E.on and they now have to start putting catalytic converters on their power stations to try to reduce emissions and lower global warming. Greenpeace did this by climbing E.on’s towers to attract media and attention.

    2. Identify the many ways in which insider pressure groups exert their power –

    Insider pressure groups are pressure groups which have inside links in the houses of parliament, examples of these would be CBI, these have inside links and can therefore get their point across and have more power than outsider pressure groups. They have inside links to people high up in the government such as Gordon Brown, and MP’s. An example of CBI exerting their power would be minimum wage rise, CBI may not want the minimum wage to rise as they would have to pay their workers more, and therefore they may stop this rise through the houses of parliament and government by using their insider links.

    3. What is the difference between promotional and protective pressure groups? –

    Promotional pressure groups are pressure groups who aim to promote a particular cause, they are not “self-interested” and don’t do it for self gain, these are groups such as Greenpeace who try to benefit society by protesting to save the environment.

    Protective pressure groups are pressure groups that “defend their own interests” such as trade unions or the CBI.

  25. George / Sep 19 2008 9:16 am

    1.Outside pressure groups are best known for not having any direct access to parliament. So therefore, they need to get there point of view/message across to them they do this firstly by staging protests. What this does is grabs the media’s attention and gives them much wanted attention so that they will then receive publicity for what they are protesting for/against. The most famous pressure groups are Greenpeace and Fathers for Justice both of these in the past have both been known to use this method. Another method used by pressure groups to protest is a demonstration, which is a non-violent way of putting there point of view across. A famous demonstration was when a supporter/ member of Father’s for justice climb Buckingham palace in demonstration for more fathers’ rights. Non-violent direct action is also another method of protesting for pressure groups, for example the most famous incident of this happening is when protesters of the petrol prices carried out a road blockade in 2001. Other methods used by pressure groups are petitions, lobbying parliament, fundraising events etc

    2. A inside pressure group is a group with having direct access to parliament. So therefore they can have direct access to mps etc. One of the methods used by inside pressure groups is contact with MP’s and political parties, this is easy for the inside pressure groups because they will be able to just walk up to any Mp or political party and attempt to persuade them to accept there proposal. The most famous inside pressure groups are ‘The Confederation of British Industry (CBI) and ‘The Trade Union Congress’ are seen as the elite pressure groups because of the power they have to be able to have access to parliament and have more influence on the leading political figures. Due to them being a more powerful body they have there own interests to worry about, so if there was a protest about raising the minimum wage. The CBI wouldn’t want that to happen because they represent many industries throughout England (Sainsbury’s, Tesco’s, next etc) they themselves would stage a protest against that and exert there power to the Prime Minister etc for them not to allow the rise to happen.

    3. A protective pressure group is also referred to as an ‘Elite pressure group’ this mainly due to the fact they have there own interests to protect. An Elite pressure group are CBI or the TUC. Both of these groups have different interests because the CBI represents the industries and the TUC represent the unions. They also then come to a clash because they both want the best for the parties. A promotional pressure group are ones who are less powerful and crave for media coverage in a cry to publicise there views, promotional pressure groups include Greenpeace, Fathers for Justice Etc.

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