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May 1, 2018 / C H Thompson

What is work?

Pahl (1984) and Pahl & Gershuny (1980) identified four distinct forms of work:

  1. paid employment in the formal or approved economy. This is work where an individual’s earning are subject to income tax and National Insurance
  2. the black economy is where people get paid cash in-hand and therefore don’t pay income tax or National Insurance. This is known as the informal or unofficial economy
  3. unpaid work within the home – unpaid labour in the home such as cooking, cleaning, childcare etc
  4. unpaid work outside the home – such as voluntary work, charity work, helping friends and neighbours



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