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April 26, 2018 / C H Thompson

Cultural effects model

  • Stuart Hall, of the GMG, used the concepts of encoding and decoding as a means of understanding how media messages are encoded with a ‘preferred’ reading
  • Hall argued the ‘encoding’ is conducted by media owners, editors and journalists (these people tend to be white, middle-class, well-educated males) who use the media to communicate journalists values, interests and beliefs at the expense of other views (see churnalism )
  • The process of encoding through dominant social groups, previously mentioned, is explained through neo-Marxist views of media owners
  • Hall said these ‘encoded’ messages are then ‘decoded’ by the audience through a combination of ‘preferred’ and ‘negotiated’ reading
  • Morely (1980) conducted further research into this



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