Heidi Hartmann’s (1981) research
Female domestic labour:
On average, full-time housewives worked 60 per week on household chores.
When children were involved, an extra 10 hours a week was added to domestic labour
Male domestic labour:
Males devoted on average 11 hours per week on household chores.
When young children involved, males devoted 5 hours per week to childcare.
These 5 hours per week were not added to the males’ total hours, but subtracted from their “normal” household duties (Men, on average, gave the same amount of time to domestic labour, regardless of the extra work involved in raising children).